Your heart is generally the extent of a clench hand and sits in the middle of your chest, somewhat to one side. It’s the muscle at the inside of your flow framework, siphoning blood around your body as your heart thumps. This blood sends oxygen and supplements to all parts of your body, and conveys away unwanted carbon dioxide and waste products.

Structure of Your Heart

Your heart is comprised of three layers of tissue:

  • epicardium
  • myocardium
  • endocardium

These layers are encompassed by the pericardium, a thin outer lining securing your heart. There are four chambers that make up the heart – two on the left
side and two on the right.

The two little upper chambers are the atria. The two larger lower chambers are the ventricles. These left and right sides of the heart are separated by a mass of muscle called the septum.

Circulatory System

Your heart siphons blood around the body constantly – about five liters (eight pints) of it – and this is called course. Your heart, blood and veins together make up your cardiovascular framework (or heart and circulatory system).

The right half of the heart gets blood that is low in oxygen in light of the fact that most has been spent by the cerebrum and body. It siphons this to your lungs, where it grabs a new supply of oxygen. The blood then returns to the left half of the heart, prepared to be siphoned retreat to the mind and the rest of your body.

Blood vessels

Your blood is siphoned around your body through a system of blood vessels:

  • Arteries – they convey oxygen-rich blood from your heart to all parts of your body, getting littler as they make tracks in an opposite direction from the heart
  • Capillaries – they associate the littlest corridors to the smallest veins, and help trade water, oxygen, carbon dioxide and other nutrients and squander substances between the blood and the tissues around them
  • Veins – they convey blood, ailing in oxygen, back towards your heart, and get greater as they get closer your heart

Blood vessels can enlarge or limit contingent upon how much blood each piece of your body requires. This activity is halfway controlled by hormones.

Right Side. ~ receives deoxygenated blood from body. ~ this side pumps this blood to the lungs through the pulmonary arteries. ~ pulmonary arteries are the only arteries in body that contain blood that is low in oxygen. Left Side. ~ receives oxygenated blood from the lungs. ~ blood returns to heart from the lungs through the pulmonary veins. ~ pulmonary veins are the only veins in body that contain blood high in oxygen. ~this side pumps blood through left atrium & left ventrical to the body via the aorta.


Your heart has four valves. They act like entryways, keeping the blood moving in the privilege direction:

  • Aortic valve – on the left side
  • Mitral valve – on the left side
  • Pulmonary valve – on the privilege side
  • Tricuspid valve – on the privilege side

Electrical Framework

For your heart to continue siphoning consistently, it needs electrical signals which are sent to the heart muscle disclosing to it when to contract and relax.

The electrical flag begins in the correct chamber where your heart’s normal pacemaker – the sino– atrial hub – is arranged. This signal crosses the atria, making them contract. Blood is siphoned through the valves into the ventricles.

Where the atria meet the ventricles, there is a zone of special cells – called the atrio-ventricular hub – which pass the electrical signals all through your heart muscle by an arrangement of electrical pathways, known as the leading system.

The muscles of the ventricles at that point contract, and blood is pumped through the pneumonic and aortic valves into the primary arteries.

The heart’s normal ‘pacemaker’ – the sino-atrial hub – produces another electrical flag, and the cycle begins again.

Blood Pressure

This is the estimation of the weight inside the arteries. It assumes an essential job in the manner in which your heart conveys crisp blood to all your blood vessels. For blood to go all through your body rapidly enough, it has to be feeling the squeeze. This is made by the connection between three things:

  • Your heart’s siphoning action
  • The size and stretchiness of your blood vessels
  • The thickness of the blood itself

One heartbeat is a solitary cycle in which your heart contracts and unwinds to siphon blood. Very still, the ordinary heart beats approximately 60 to multiple times each moment, and it increments when you exercise.

To guarantee a sufficient blood supply around your body, the four loads of your heart need to siphon routinely and in the privilege sequence.

There are two stages to your heart’s siphoning cycle:

  • Systole – this is the point at which your heart contracts, pushing blood out of the chambers
  • Diastole – this is the period between compressions when the muscle of your heart (myocardium) unwinds and the loads load up with blood

What can go wrong?


Some individuals are brought into the world with a heart that has not developed properly in the belly before birth – this is called innate heart disease. Sometimes you can acquire a heart condition from your family.

Cardiovascular System

Problems with your heart and dissemination framework include:

  • Heart attack
  • Angina
  • Stroke

Heart illness can happen when your coronary veins become narrowed by a progressive develop of greasy material – called atheroma.

If your coronary corridors are limited or obstructed, the blood supply to your heart will be disabled. This is the most widely recognized type of heart disease, known as coronary illness (now and then called coronary supply route disease or ischaemic heart disease).

Eventually, your courses may turn out to be so limited they can’t deliver enough blood to your heart. This can cause angina – an agony or discomfort in your chest, arm, neck, stomach or jaw.

If the greasy material severs or cracks, a blood clot will shape, which can cause heart assault (or stroke, if the course influenced is carrying blood to your brain).

Electrical System

Normally your heart will pulsate between 60 to multiple times per minute. This ordinary cadenced pulsating is needy upon electrical signals being led all through your heart.

If the electrical flags inside your heart are interrupted, your heart can thump too rapidly (tachycardia), too gradually (bradycardia) and/or in a sporadic way. This is called an arrhythmia – see Chest Heart & Stroke Scotland.

Conditions influencing the siphoning of your heart

There are a few conditions which can harm your heart muscle, making it powerless and unfit to siphon as effectively as before:

Heart assault high circulatory strain (hypertension)

  • Heart valve issues – see Chest Heart & Stroke Scotland
  • Cardiomyopathy – this is a general term for infections of the heart muscle. Some of the time these illnesses are acquired from your family. Sometimes they are caused by different things, as viral infections.
  • There are likewise conditions – like high blood pressure
  • (hypertension) – which mean your heart needs to work harder.

When your heart muscle can’t meet your body’s requests for blood and oxygen, you can create different side effects, as breathlessness, extreme tiredness and lower leg swelling. This is called heart disappointment in light of the fact that of the disappointment of your heart to siphon blood around the body and work efficiently.


Your heart can’t work typically if the heart valves aren’t working legitimately, as it can influence the stream of blood through the heart

There are two fundamental ways that the valves can be affected:

Valves can spill – this is called valve spewing forth or valve incompetence

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